LALA LAJPAT RAI: participated actively in the non-cooperation movement against British rule, which was started mainly to oppose the Rowlatt Act.For showing bravery in opposing this new legislation, in Punjab, Lala Lajpat Rai was given the title of 'Punjab Kesari' .

  • He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. The British colonial authorities called him "The father of the Indian unrest." He was also conferred with the title of "Lokmanya"
  • He is known for his quote “Swarajya is my birthright and I shall have it” 
  • He organised the Deccan Educational Society in 1884 with a few of his college friends, including Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahadev, Ballal Namjoshi and Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar. Their goal was to improve the quality of education for India's youth 
  • Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in 1890. He opposed its moderate attitude, especially towards the fight for self-government. He was one of the most-eminent radicals at the time. 
  • Published two news papers Kesari (Marathi) & Maharatta (English)

  • Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the LAL, BAL and PAL trio that was associated with revolutionary activity. In fact Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were recognized as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education. 

  •  Sri Aurobindo came to the active politics with an evolutionary idea of ‘Independence’ instead of ‘Swaraj’. He was a believer that the nation had the right to obtain its freedom from foreign rule by any means possible. 
  •  In 1905, with the partition of Bengal, Aurobindo pleaded for leaving moderate politics and join the extreme politics of prominent contemporary leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and Bipin Chandra Pal 
  • Viceroy Lord Minto was quick to term him as the ‘Most dangerous man in India’. Sri Aurobindo was tried twice for sedation but acquitted both the times. However, in May 1908 he was arrested in Alipore Bomb case and imprisoned for one year. In 1910 he left active politics to become a yogi. 

  •  The Partition of Bengal drew him to the Swadeshi movement. 
  •  He founded the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti to promote the consumption of indigenous products and boycott foreign goods. When the moderates and the extremists parted ways in the Surat session, he attempted reconciliation between the two groups.
Rise of revolutionary terrorist movement: 

  •  The failure of Moderates and Extremist to get anything substantial from British. 
  • Repressive policies of British government, restriction on freedom of press(1908),Imprisonment of Imp leaders like Tilak and other important personalities for preaching nationalism 
  • Influence of western ideas & method of struggle i.e. Irish Movement. 
  • Existence of militant nationalist school of thought in the Nationalist movement- Raj Narain, A.KDutt (Bengal). 
  •  Vishnu Shastri Chipulankar Vasudev BalwantPhadke -Ramosi Peasant Force (Maharashtra)& The emergence of eminent extremist leaders in beginning of 20th century e.g. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (Maharashtra), Bipin Chandra pal & Aurobindo Ghosh (Bengal),Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh (Punjab), T. Prakashan & M. Krishna Rao (Andhra) etc.
FREEDOM STRUGGLE-EXTREMIST PHASE 1905-1918 FREEDOM STRUGGLE-EXTREMIST PHASE 1905-1918 Reviewed by The Hindu Current Affairs on October 11, 2018 Rating: 5

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