FREEDOM STRUGGLE-MODERATE PHASE 1885-1905


DADABHAI NAROJI (Grand old man)

  •  He was the 1st to give the theory of Drain of wealth, His book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India brought attention to the draining of India's wealth into Britain. 
  •  Naoroji founded the RAHNUMAE MAZDAYASNE SABHA (Guides on the Mazdayasne Path) in1851 to restore the Zoroastrian religion to its original purity and simplicity. In 1854, he also founded a Gujarati fortnightly publication, the Rast-O-Goftar (or The Truth Teller), to clarify Zoroastrian concepts and promote Parsi social reforms. 
  •  He became the member of House of Commons of the British Parliament means he was the 1st Indian to become the member of British parliament. 
  •  Dadabhai was honored by being thrice elected president of Indian national congress
GOPAL KRISHNA GOKHLE

  • He was the political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi. 
  •  He was the founder of theorganization Servants of India Society in 1905 with the help Of M.G Ranade, 
  •  The aim of the society to train national missionaries for the service of India an involved himself in social cause. 
  •  After Gokhale’s death (1915), Shrinivas Shastri took over as the president. 
  •  The society still continues to function through its shrunken base in many cities of India.
FEROZ SHAH MEHTA

  •  Mehta was born on in Bombay to a Parsi business family 
  •  Was an Indian political leader, activist, and a leading lawyer of Bombay,Became the municipal commissioner of Bombay Municipality in 1873, President of Indian National Congress in 1890 Calcutta session. 
  • In 1910, he started Bombay Chronicle, an English-language weekly newspaper,
SURENDRANATH BANERJEE

  •  He founded the Indian National Association, through which he led two sessions of the Indian National Conference in 1883 and 1885, along with Anandamohan Bose. 
  •  After the foundation of INC, Banerjee merged his organization with it. 
  •  He was elected the Congress President in 1895 at Poona and in 1902 at Ahmedabad.
BADDRUDDINTAIYABJI

  •  Taiyabji was the 3rd president of Indian national congress in madras session 1887 and 1st Muslim president. 
  •  He was also the 1st Indian Barrister in Bombay in 1867; He became the 1st Indian to hold the post of chief justice in Bombay. 
  •  In 1885 he helped to found Bombay Presidency association along with Pheroz Shah Mehta & Kashinath Telang. 
  • He campaigned against “purdah”. 
  •  He supported Age of consent Bill 1891, Despite Hindu and Muslim opposition
M.G RANADE

  •  He was among the foremost reformers, who deprecated the caste system and Untouchability, Favored the enhancement of the status of women and was a champion of widow Re-marriage. Ranade believed that unless social reforms were achieved, there could be no real economic or political progress. Ranade was a founder of the National Social Conference 1887,He was one of the founders of the Widow Marriage Association 1861He was one of the first members of the Prathana Samaj, founded in 1867Established the Maharashtra Girls Education Society and Huzurpaga, the oldest girls' high school in Pune.
R.C DUTTA

  • He was an Economic historian of India of the nineteenth century 
  •  His famous works are in which he described deplorable condition of India due to British Rule are England and India ,Famin. in India& his most Famous work the two volumes of The Economic History of India.
W.C BANERJEE

  •  Womesh Chandra Banerjee was the first President of Indian National Congress (INC) 
  •  He was the first Indian to contest the election for the British House of Commons although he lost. 
  •  In 1865 DadabhaiNaoroji founded the London Indian society and Banerjee was made its general secretary. He was the member of the East India Association also. 
APPROACH OF MODERATES

  •  Moderates never asked for independence of India, they always declared themselves the loyal citizen of British rule, they believe in the essential goodness of British. 
  •  They didn’t believe in pressure politics  Moderates believe that the British basically wanted to be just to the Indians but were not aware of the real conditions. 
  • Therefore if the public opinion could be created in the country and public demands be presented to the government through resolutions, petitions, meetings etc., the authorities would concede these demands gradually. 
To achieve these ends they worked on two prolonged methodologies
LIMITATION OF MODERATES

  • They believe in essential goodness of British. 
  •  They did not mobilize the masses. 
  •  They did not take up social reform as an agenda of congress. 
  •  They failed to put pressure on British for Action.
ESTIMATE OF MODERATES

  •  It appears that moderates were a failure but actually they were not, there constitutional activities were reported in News Papers &through which political education of Indians carried out 
  •  Under their influence The Indian council act 1892 passed. 
  • This act for the 1st time introduced the element of discussion & question in legislature. 
  •  Though this act was toothless but with the help of same they can enter into legislature & there they would give speeches & participate into the proceedings, till now Indians know only traditional politics, but by their activities in legislature they laid the foundation of modern Indian politics. 
  •  Economic critique of British imperialism analysed by early nationalists Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C.Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and they put forward the “Drain Theory” to Explain British exploitation in India 
  • They opposed the transformation of basically self sufficient Indian economy into colonial Economy (a supplier of raw material and food stuff, an importer of finished goods and a field of investment for British capital) Thus, the moderates were able to create an all India public opinion that British rule in India is major cause of India’s backwardness and poverty
FREEDOM STRUGGLE-MODERATE PHASE 1885-1905  FREEDOM STRUGGLE-MODERATE PHASE 1885-1905 Reviewed by The Hindu Current Affairs on October 11, 2018 Rating: 5

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