Indian History-Socio-Religious Movement Part II


PRARTHANA SAMAJ
PrarthanaSamaj was founded by Atmaram Pandurang with the help of Keshav Chandra Sen in 1867, with an aim to make people believe in one God and worship only one God in Bombay. It had four point agenda:

  • Promotion of women’s education 
  • Supporting widow remarriage 
  • Raising the minimum permissible age of marriage for both the genders 
  •  Against caste system Its major leaders were M.G. Ranade, R.G. Bhandarkar and N.G. Chandavarkar.
SWAMI DAYANAND SARASWATI AND ARYA SAMAJ

  • The Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayanand Saraswathi at Bombay in 1875. A few years later its headquarters were set up at Lahore. 
  •  Born in Kathiawar in Gujarat, Swami Dayanand (1824-83) he left home in order to escape the entanglement of marriage when he was 21. He spent two and a half years at Mathura as a disciple of a blind saint scholar Swami Virjananda, who taught him the philosophic interpretation of the Vedas. He believed the Vedas were the source of true knowledge and is infallible. His motto was “Back to the Vedas”. 
  •  Maharshi Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation. He emphasized the ideals of Brahmacharya including celibacy and devotion to God. He was against idol worship, child marriage and caste system based on birth. 
  •  He encouraged inter-caste marriages and widow remarriage. 
  •  He started the Suddhi movement to bring back those Hindus who had converted to other religions to its fold. He wrote the book Satyartha Prakash which contains his ideas. 
  •  He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "Indian for India" in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. 
  •  The Paropakarini Sabha located in the Indian city of Ajmer was founded by the Swami himself to publish and preach his works and Vedic texts.
SWAMI VIVEKANANDA AND RAMAKRISHNA MISSION

  • The original name of Swami Vivekananda was Narendranath Dutta (1863-1902) and he became the most famous disciple of Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. He was born in a prosperous Bengali family of Calcutta and educated in Scottish Church College. In 1886 Narendranath took the vow of Sanyasa and was given the name, Vivekananda. 
  •  He preached Vedantic Philosophy. He condemned the caste system and the current Hindu emphasis on rituals and ceremonies. Swami Vivekananda participated at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago (USA) in September 1893 and raised the prestige of India and Hinduism very high. 
  •  He asked the people to improve the lives of the poor and depressed classes. He believed that service to mankind is service to God. 
  •  He founded the Ramkrishna Mission at Belur in Howrah in 1897. It is a social service and charitable society. The objectives of this Mission are providing humanitarian relief and social work through the establishment of schools, colleges, hospitals and orphanages.
  •  He advised his followers to be holy, unselfish and to have shraddhā (faith). Vivekananda supported brahmacharya (celibacy), believing it the source of his physical and mental stamina and eloquence. 
GOPAL HARI DESHMUKH (LOKHITWADI)

  •  Attacked Hindu orthodoxy supported social & religious equality. (Said if religion does not sanction social reform then change that religion.) 
PANDITA RAMABAI 
  •  founded org named “Mahila Arya Samaj” 
THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
  •  The Theosophical Society was founded in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P. Blavatsky, a Russian lady, and Henry Steel Olcott, an American colonel. 
  •  Their main objectives were to form a universal brotherhood of man without any distinction of race, colour or creed and to promote the study of ancient religions and philosophies. 
  •  They arrived in India and established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1882. 
  •  The society believed in reincarnation and Karma. Their beliefs were based on the philosophy of Upanishads and Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta school of thoughts. 
  •  Later in 1893, Mrs. Annie Besant arrived in India and took over the leadership of the Society after the death of Olcott. 
  •  Mrs. Annie Besant founded the Central Hindu School along with Madan Mohan Malaviya at Benaras which later developed into the Banaras Hindu University.

Indian History-Socio-Religious Movement Part II Indian History-Socio-Religious Movement Part II Reviewed by The Hindu Current Affairs on October 09, 2018 Rating: 5

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