RISE OF MODERN NATIONALISM – GROWTH OF NEW INDIA


Grew partly as a result of colonial policies and partly as a reaction to colonial policies

  • Political and administrative unity 
  • Administrative unification of India under British rule 
  •  English Language and Western Education 
  •  Development of Transport and Means of Communication 
  •  Emergence of modern press 
  • Economic Exploitation 
  •  Revival of Glorious Indian Heritage 
  •  Repressive policies and racial arrogance of British 
  •  Emergence of Conscious Middle Class 
  •  Strong reaction to British imperialist policies in India 
  •  Impact of contemporary movements in world 
 Indian renaissance All these factors jointly, had promoted the growth of nationalism in India. Indian nationalism was not the hand maid of a particular class, but the result of a common consciousness among all classes of India

PRINTING PRESS & ROLE OF PRESS IN INDIA –the printing press was first brought to India in 16th century by JAMES HICKY an Irishman.

  •  In 1780 he released 1st printed newspaper in India the name of news paper was BENGAL GAZETTE. 
  •  SAMACHARDARPAN was 1st newspaper in Indian language Bengali started in 1819. 
  • UdantMartand (the rising sun) was the first Hindi language newspaper published in India Started on May 30, 1826, from Calcutta the weekly newspaper was published every Tuesday by Pt. Jugal Kishore Shukla 
  • In 1878 Lord Lytton brought the vernacular press act 1878, it imposed various restrictions on vernacular press which was previously removed by Metcalf in 1835
  •  At that time there was a famous newspaper named Amrit Bazar Patrika by Shisir Kumar Ghos it adopted a new strategy to save itself from vernacular press act of Lytton and over the night converted it into English newspaper from Bengali .
Early Organizations or organizations before congress 

  •  LAND HOLDER’S SOCIETY 1838: The Zamindari Association, more popularly known as the “Landholders Society” was founded in 1838 to safeguard the interests of the landlords. It marked the beginning of an organized political activity and use of methods of constitutional agitation for the redressal of grievances. 
  •  BENGAL BRITISH INDIA SOCIETY 1843: Founded with the objective to collect information on ground reality & actual condition of the people of British India & to secure interest, rights of all classes. In 1851 both the Land holder’s society 1838 & Bengal British India Society merged to form BRITISH INDIAN ASSOCIATION 
  •  EAST INDIA ASSOCIATION 1866: The East Indian Association was organized by DadabhaiNaoroji in 1866 in London to discuss the Indian question and to influence British public men to promote Indian welfare. Later he organized branches of the Association in prominent Indian cities 
  •  INDIAN ASSOCIATION 1876: The Indian Association founded by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in 1876 superseded the Indian League. It hoped to attract not only the middle classes but also the masses by keeping low membership fee. Soon the Indian Association became the center of the leading representatives of the educated community of Bengal.
  • BOMBAY ASSOCIATION 1852: The first political organization of the Bombay Presidency was the Bombay Association which was started on 26 August 1852, to vent public grievances to the British 
  •  POONA SARVAJANIK SABHA 1867: Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was founded in 1867 by Mahadeo Govind Ranade and others, with the object of serving as a bridge between the Government one the one hand and the people on the other 
  •  MADRAS MAHAJAN SABHA 1884” In 1884, the Madras Mahajan Sabha was founded by M. Viraraghavachari, B. Subramaniya Aiyer and P. Anandacharlu.
The Indian National Congress:

  • Founded by 72 political delegates , it was the first organised expression of indian nationalisim on all India scale A.O Hume a retired ICS officer , played an important role in its formation. 
  •  The first session of congress presided by Womesh Chandra Bonerjee & held at Gokuldas Tejpal sanskrit college Bombay in Dec 1885. 
  •  As prelude to this two session of Indian National Confrencehad been held in 1883 and 1885,which had representative drawn from all major towns of india. Surendranath banarjea and Anand Mohan Bose were the main architect of Indian National Confrence. 
  • SAFETY VALVE THEORY 
  1.  Theory was put forward by Lala Lajpat Rai in paper Young India n 1916. 
  2.  He supported arguments with refrences contained in Hume’s biogrophy written by willium widderburn in 1913. 
  3.  According to this theory INC was started by Hume and others under the official advice of Lord dufferin , The Viceroy ,to provide “safety valve” for the rising discontent among masses .
FACTS ABOUT CONGRESS

  •  1 st session Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College Bombay. Earlier Poona was selected but shifted to bombay because of the outbreak of the cholera . 
  •  1 st President Womesh chandra banerjee of Bengal . 
  •  1 st session was attended by 100 men of whom 72 were non-officials & were recognised as members. 
  •  Founder members were Fherozesah mehta , Badruddin tyabji, W.C banerjee, RC Dutt ,Dada Bhai Naoroji. 
  •  Initially it was named Indian National Union. 
  •  Educated middle class had the largest share in the beginning. 
  •  Brahmins among the castes were comparatively large in numbers. 
  •  Among the provinces ,Bombay , Madras ,Calcutta took the leading part. 
  •  Landed class and the masses were not represented properly. 
  •  Congress started a journal “India” in 1890.
RISE OF MODERN NATIONALISM – GROWTH OF NEW INDIA RISE OF MODERN NATIONALISM – GROWTH OF NEW INDIA Reviewed by The Hindu Current Affairs on October 11, 2018 Rating: 5

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