World's smallest optical gyroscope developed


 What is Important?
UPSC perspective:
Prelims:Objectives
Mains:Objectives & Significance


Why in News?

Scientists have developed the world’s smallest optical gyroscope - a device that helps vehicles, drones and handheld electronic devices know their orientation in 3D space. 

Objectives:

*This device helps vehicles, drones, and wearable and handheld electronic devices know their orientation in three-dimensional space.
*It is 500 times smaller than the current state-of-the-art device described in the journal Nature Photonics.
*The new gyroscope achieves improved performance by using a new technique called "reciprocal sensitivity enhancement.
“In this case, "reciprocal" means that it affects both beams of the light inside the gyroscope in the same way.
*Inside the gyroscope, light travels through miniaturised optical waveguides (small conduits that carry light).
*Inside the gyroscope, light travels through miniaturised optical waveguides (small conduits that carry light).

About fibre optic gyroscope:

*A fibre optic gyroscope (FOG) senses changes in orientation using the Sagnac effect, thus performing the function of a mechanical gyroscope.
*Its principle of operation is instead based on the interference of light which has passed through a coil of optical fibre, which can be as long as 5 km.

Significance:

*A FOG provides extremely precise rotational rate information, in part because of its lack of cross-axis sensitivity to vibration, acceleration, and shock.
*Unlike the classic spinning-mass gyroscope, the FOG has no moving parts and doesn't rely on inertial resistance to movement.
*This is one alternative to the mechanical gyroscope. Because of their intrinsic reliability, FOGs are used for high performance space applications.
*The FOG typically shows a higher resolution than a ring laser gyroscope,





World's smallest optical gyroscope developed World's smallest optical gyroscope developed Reviewed by The Hindu Current Affairs on October 28, 2018 Rating: 5

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